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The Somali Dervish movement was a thorn in the British colonial side for 20 years starting at the beginning of the 20th century. The leader Mohammed Abdullah Hassan was able to resist military expeditions and establish his own proto-state in the region.
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Berhe, Simona. “Colonies (Italy) (Version 1.1)” in: 1914-1918-online. International Encyclopedia of the First World War, ed. by Ute Daniel, Peter Gatrell, Oliver Janz, Heather Jones, Jennifer Keene, Alan Kramer, and Bill Nasson, issued by Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin 2020-11-17.
Bosworth, Richard and Giuseppe Finaldi. “The Italian Empire,” in Empires at War 1911-1923, Robert Gerwarth and Ertez Manela, eds. (OUP, 2014): 34-52.
Chester Courant and Advertiser for North Wales. “Somalia Battle.” January 20, 1904.
Hess, Robert L. “The ‘Mad Mullah’ and Northern Somalia,” in The Journal of African History,
Vol. 5, No. 3 (1964): 415-433.
Jardine, Douglas. “The Mad Mullah of Somaliland” (London: Herbert Jenkins, 1923).
Sheikh-Abdi, Abdi. “Divine Madness: Mohammed Abdulle Hassan, 1856–1920” (London: Zed Books, 1992).
Zollmann, Jakob. „Ethiopia“ in: 1914-1918-online. International Encyclopedia of the First World War, ed. by Ute Daniel, Peter Gatrell, Oliver Janz, Heather Jones, Jennifer Keene, Alan Kramer, and Bill Nasson, issued by Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin 2020-08-26
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