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Chinese Warlord Era – The Zhili– … | Man Shit Hub

Chinese Warlord Era – The Zhili– …

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The first decades of the 20th century were a tumultuous time for China with carrying factions trying to control the vast country. These cliques were led by colorful warlords who even went to war with each other. The Zhili-, Anhui- and Fengtian Cliques are the most well known of this warlord era in Chinese history.

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» SOURCES
Dreyer, Edward L. China at War 1901-1949, (New York : Longman Publishing, 1995)

Gray, Jack, Rebellions and Revolutions: China from the 1800s to 2000, (Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2002)

Jowett, Philip, Chinese Warlord Armies 1911-30, (Oxford : Osprey Publishing, 2010)

Mackinnon, Stephen R. “The Peiyang Army, Yuan Shih-k`ai, and the Origins of Modern Chinese Warlordism” The Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 32, No. 3 (May, 1973)

McCord, Edward A. “Burn, Kill, Rape, and Rob: Military Atrocities, Warlordism, and Anti-Warlordism in Republican China” in Lary, Diana & MacKinnon, Stephen (eds.) Scars of War: The Impact of Warfare on Modern China, (Toronto : UBC Press, 2001)

McCord, Edward A. The Power of the Gun, The Emergence of Modern Chinese Warlordism, (Berkeley : University of California Press)

Mühlhahn, Klaus, Making China Modern: From the Great Qing to Xi Jinping, (Cambridge, MA : The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2019)

“民國時期最狂軍閥,出版過詩集的草莽將軍張宗昌” [Trans: The most insane warlord during the Republic of China, the published poetry collection of the general Zhang Zongchang]. The News Lens, (10 August 2018) www.thenewslens.com/article/99950

Sheridan, James E. The warlord era: politics and militarism under the Peking government, 1916-28 in Fairbank, John K. & Twitchett, Denis (eds.) The Cambridge History of China: Volume 12, Republican China 1912-1949, Part 1, (Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2005)

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